Here is a short overview of three modern water purification processes, which shed light on the challenges faced by water companies today. Reverse osmosis was invented in 1748 by Jean-Antoine Nollet, a French priest. The process involves forcing large amounts of water through a semi-permeable membrane.
This method requires a lot of energy, but it eliminates contaminants, chemicals, salt, and anything else that is not water. Although no water purification system is foolproof, reverse osmosis comes pretty close. The UK predominantly obtains its water supply from desalination plants. Desert regions also use this the desalination process to extract potable drinking water from the sea.
This purification process involves the use of chemicals to remove salt, contaminants, and particles from the water. Desalination has also been adapted for agricultural use. Although desalination plants are seen as essential, their release of brine into the oceans has caused serious ecological concerns. The last method for obtaining clean drinking water is using solar distillation. Large scale operations rely on sunlight and a transparent membrane to make water. Seawater and contaminated water is placed at the bottom level, where it can evaporate. As it condenses, the water is collected in a reservoir and becomes safe to drink.
Infographic Source: Main Processes For Purifying Water